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The bicycle accident analysis and bikeway evaluation identified the need for certain bikeway improvements. Improvements are planned to improve safety and increase ridership along the bikeways. The improvements are summarized in the following sections:
  • Fixed object hazards
  • Route additions
  • Route improvements
  • Bicycle facility maintenance
  • Intersection improvements
  • Nighttime riding provisions


Metal posts installed on some of Eugene's separate bicycle paths to prevent cars from post.jpg (31995 bytes)driving on bike paths, create a fixed object hazard to bicyclists, particularly at night. The posts restrict the path of bicycle drivers. This restriction was a primary cause of a reported head-on bicycle collision. The majority of the installations do not serve the function of restricting automobiles because a barrier is only across the bicycle path. Driving around the barrier is simple, although seldom reported. There have been no accidents in the past five-years involving motor vehicles operated on a separate bicycle path. There is no evidence that the problem of motor vehicles operated on bike paths is greater on paths not restricted with the metal posts.

The location of the numerous dents and scratches on the metal posts provides visual evidence that the posts are hazards. Dents correspond to the height of the axle of a bicycle, and scratches correspond to pedal heights. There is only one known severe injury accident involving a bicyclist striking one of the metal posts; however, the injury accident survey documented that this type of accident is almost never reported to the City.

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The City has developed and successfully used several alternatives to the metal posts. The figure above illustrates a barrier located at the west end of 15th Street (near Jefferson Street). As shown, the bike path branches at the connection to the roadway, and logs block the entrance to motor vehicles. Appropriate signing alerts the unaware motorist that the bike path is for pedestrians and bicycles only. The bike path is level with the roadway surface and does not cross a sidewalk as it joins 15th Street. Trimming the log ends at an angle would improve this barricade design. The five-foot-wide openings in the log barricade are narrow enough that bicyclists riding abreast might strike a pedal against a log end.

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The figure above illustrates a barrier located at the east end of 16th Street (near Friendly Street).

The bike path is level with the sidewalk and crosses the sidewalk before joining 16th Street. The bike path branches before it reaches the sidewalk, and the curb along the sidewalk acts as a barrier to most motor vehicles. Signing informs the unaware motorist that the bicycle path is for use by pedestrians and bicycles only. Branching the bike path and providing two five-foot wide curb cuts, allows two-way bicycle operation. No fixed object hazards are built into this design.

A third design used by the City is located at the intersection of the Amazon Channel Bike Path and 29th Street near Hilyard Street. This design uses a single curb cut, offset from the bike path. The bike path dead ends at the sidewalk, and a nearby curb cut connects the sidewalk to the roadway. The bicyclist is required to make a sharp turn onto the sidewalk, ride along the sidewalk parallel to the roadway, and then make a sharp turn into the roadway. Simultaneously maneuvering these turns and scanning traffic is difficult. The sharp turns were reported in the public hearing as being impossible for bicycles built for two riders. Bicyclists frequently cut corners to avoid these sharp turns. The single, five-foot-wide curb cut is not wide enough for safe two-way operation. These bottleneck the bikeway. Turns by bicyclists from the roadway into the curb cut are difficult because of the immediate sharp turn at the sidewalk. Although this design is an adequate barrier for most motor vehicles and contains no built-in fixed object hazards, there are several built-in problems related to the safe operation of bicycles. This design is useful for low volume bicycle paths intersecting a low volume road. However, when the potential of vehicle conflicts is high, one of the first two designs described is recommended.


  1. It is recommended that the City of Eugene and Lane County remove the metal posts installed across the bicycle paths, and where necessary, install barriers similar to the barriers described above. Locations of the metal posts are described in the route improvement summary in the next section. The hazard of motor vehicle-bicycle conflicts on separate bicycle paths has not proven real, whereas the hazard of the metal posts across the bicycle paths is real. Therefore, the use of the metal posts is not warranted at this time.


Specific route improvements are listed below. The route numbers correspond to the route numbers assigned in the Bikeways Master Plan.

Route Number Recommended Improvement
152 (Willhi-Taney Connection) Overlay alligator/cracked and settled pavement sections. Install a safe motor vehicle barricade*  at the east end of Willhi.
156 (Hughes Street) Install YIELD signs on the bike path at the intersection of Berntzen. Install a safe motor vehicle barricade* at the southern extension of Hughes near Hawthorne.
159 (Taney Street) Install a safe motor vehicle barricade* at the extension of Hawthorne near Ellsworth and at the slough crossing. Extend paving to Royal Avenue.
171 (Fairfield Street) Provide bike route signing at Elmira Road.
200 (Coburg Road) Eliminate sidewalk conflicts wherever possible.
320 (Fern Ridge Path) Paint white edge striping. Install a safe motor vehicle barricade at the north end of Quaker and intersections with Acorn Park, Oak Patch and City View. Install YIELD signs on the bike path at the intersections of Oak Patch and City View. Improve shoulders on fill sections to a 6 to 1 slope. Extend route to Arthur.
320-460 (Fern Ridge Path) Pave Arthur to 13th and 14th from Garfield to Hayes. Provide a safe motor vehicle barricade at Arthur and Garfield connections. Paint white edge striping. Overlay built-in puddle area south of Garfield Street, to level the area out.
350 (18th) Improve route transitions near parking zones. Install raised reflectors on transitions and curves where motor vehicles frequently travel on the bike lane striping. Extend to Agate.
354 (Kennedy School) Install safe motor vehicle barricades* at the connections of Bailey Hill and Harvard. Remove metal post in the bike path at the termination in the baseball park. Paint white edge striping.
355 (Bailey Hill) Pave driveway approaches. Extend shoulder improvements to the south to serve Kennedy Jr. High School.
410 (South Bank Trail) Provide white edge line striping. Relocate temporary building in the rose garden to improve sight distance.
452 (13th) Install safe motor vehicle barricades* at Kincaid and University. Install NO RIGHT TURN sign on the signal arm at Alder for westbound bicycles on 13th.
460 (Fern Ridge Path) Install safe motor vehicle barricades* at intersections of Chambers, Van Buren & Folk.
464 (15th) Mount BIKE ROUTE sign on a post separate from DEAD END sign at Fairmount. Install left turn refuge striping at 15th and Fairmount to establish right-of-way of westbound traffic on Fairmount.
471 (Agate) Install parking lane striping between 15th and l6th. Overlay alligator cracked pavement between 13th and 15th.
513 (Willamette) Eliminate sidewalk bike paths in the future, when bicycle lanes can be provided in street improvements.
519 (Amazon Parkway) Overlay slumping pavement south of 19th St.
521 (Donald) Install route signing at north and south ends.
523 (South Amazon Park) Install safe motor vehicle barricade* and replace miniature bicycle stop sign with a uniform YIELD sign at the Hilyard intersection. Install curb cuts at Donald St.
531 (Amazon Channel) Provide undercrossing at the Amazon Parkway, and continue the separate path to 14th. Install safe motor vehicle barricade to replace the three sets of metal posts across the bike path between 19th and 24th. Continue the route along the Amazon Channel on the west side of the school parking lot to 19th Street.

*Remove metal posts installed across the bike path


The accident analysis revealed several intersection locations with recurring bicycle accidents. Recommended improvements at these intersections are described below:

Intersection Recommended Improvement
Franklin at Onyx & Agate Install a pedestrian and bicycle overcrossing, to abut Autzen footbridge.
29th & Willamette Eliminate sidewalk bikeway.
18th & Chambers Add left turn phase to existing signal, in order to eliminate left turn - through movement conflicts. Maintain recently installed bike lanes.
Oakway & Coburg Improve channelization to reduce wrong way riding from sidewalks.


Citizens have demonstrated particular concern for completion of several routes in the near future. The route numbers listed correspond to the route numbers assigned in the Bikeways Master Plan. These routes include:

  • A railroad overcrossing connection from the Bethel area via Roosevelt Boulevard to the river trails (Route 100)
  • A connection of the south bank trail and the Glenwood area to the Knickerbocker Bridge (Adopted in 1979)
  • Connecting the Fern Ridge path between Hayes and City View (Route 320)
  • Connecting the Amazon Channel path to Hilyard Street near 34th (Route 531)
  • Extending the river bank trails to the north (Routes 125 and 225)
  • Connecting the Westmoreland Park path to the Amazon Channel path with an overcrossing above 18th Avenue (Routes 460 and 367)

Each of the route additions is a location where existing separate routes "dead end", and the bicycle driver is then required to travel on major streets. The proposed route additions provide alternatives to traveling along or crossing River Road, Highway 99E, Franklin Boulevard, 18th Avenue, Garfield Street, Chambers Street, Amazon Parkway, and Hilyard Street. Each would be useful to the commuting bicyclist, due to connections with important destinations. It is recommended that each of these connections be given priority in the implementation process. The single most important item identified by citizens for encouraging them to ride bicycles more often, is the provision of more bicycle lanes and paths. Each of the routes described above, was requested during the public hearing or in the citizen questionnaire.

The accident analysis has identified that route additions are necessary in the following locations. The route numbers correspond to the route numbers assigned in the Bikeways Master Plan.

Route No. Location
365 Chambers Street
385 Friendly Street
435 Lawrence Street
435 Lincoln Street
480 18th Street (Extend)
490 24th Street
520 29th Street

Each route should be striped as recommended in the Bikeways Master Plan. Chambers, 18th, 24th, and 29th Streets are identified as problem corridors. Friendly, Lawrence, and Lincoln Streets are adjacent to problem corridors.


Bicycle facility maintenance is important to the bicyclist. During the public hearing, more people described a need for improving maintenance than any other item. In the bicycle questionnaire, bicycle riders described better sweeping of bicycle paths as one of the four most important items that could encourage them to use their bicycles more often. The reconnaissance survey identified maintenance deficiencies throughout Eugene.

Bicycle facility maintenance problems include:

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a. Large gravel reducing the bike path's usable width

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b. Ponding due to settlement of pavement

The bicycle facilities are maintained regularly by the Public Works and/or Parks Departments of both Lane County and the City of Eugene. The sweeping schedules are adequate to prevent buildup of debris along a path. Specific problems have been the cause of citizen concern, rather than overall maintenance.

The City of Eugene has proposed improving maintenance by providing a "hot line" for informing the City of specific problems. It is recommended that the City implement this proposal, by giving the bicycle coordinator the responsibility of alerting the various maintenance crews of problems described by the citizens. The proposed "hot line" eliminates the citizens frustration of first finding the agency responsible for maintenance. In this manner, the citizens will be better served, and the maintenance agencies will be provided with the specific information that they need.

To assure that citizens can communicate the problems they note, the telephone number of the bicycle coordinator should be included in the telephone directory, and on bicycle maps and brochures distributed by the city. The bicycle coordinator should assume the responsibility of communicating the problem to the appropriate maintenance agency and making sure the problem is corrected.


The machine counters recorded bicyclists 24 hours a day, which included the dark hours of a day. A direct correspondence of the seasonal ridership variation shown in Chapter II, and the seasonal variation of available light was also noted. At the public hearing and in the bicycle questionnaire, citizens identified better lighting along the existing bikeways as one of the most important items that would encourage nighttime bicycle usage. Design standards recommended for various types of bicycle facilities and area classifications are shown in Table VI-1. The standards are adapted from the American National Standard Practice for Roadway Lighting, as approved on July 8, 1977, by the Illuminatory Engineering Society of North America. The area classifications include: commercial, intermediate, and residential areas. Commercial areas, such as the Eugene downtown mall, generally attract large numbers of nighttime pedestrians and bicyclists. Intermediate areas are characterized by moderately heavy use by nighttime pedestrians and bicyclists. Residential areas are characterized by low volumes of pedestrians and bicyclists.

Lighting is not provided on most of Eugene's separate bicycle paths, and the white edge line striping is not provided on many of the paths. The City of Eugene recently initiated efforts to provide lighting along portions of several bike paths. No other data is available at this time.

The recommended standards for illumination given in Table VI-1 represent average maintained levels of horizontal illumination. These represent minimum values, particularly where security, and bicycle or pedestrian identification at a distance is important. In special security areas, the requirements should be increased as indicated. Visual identification is directly related to vertical surface illumination. Consequently, higher pole heights require increased illumination.

The level and uniformity of lighting is an important consideration. The average to minimum uniformity ratio in illuminating bikeways where special security is not essential, should not exceed four to one, except for lanes in residential areas where a ratio of ten to one is acceptable. Where supplemental security lighting is used along a section, the uniformity ratio should not exceed five to one for the bicycle path.

The selection of mounting height, luminaire spacing, luminaire type and distribution is important to provide necessary contrasts without glare. Many luminaire designs suitable for bicycle paths are available to facilitate selection for each particular installation.

Except for the general overall lighting that may be present in commercial areas, store front lighting, private lighting, sign lighting. or reflections from structures on private property should not be considered to reduce the illumination requirements given in Table VI-1.


  Average Levels of Illumination Special Security Areas
Type of Bicycle Facility Minimum Average
9 to 15 foot Mounting Heights
15 to 30 foot Mounting Heights
  Foot-candles Lux Foot-candles Lux Foot-candles Lux
Separate Bike Paths 0.5 5 0.6 6 1.0 11
Bicycle Tunnel 4.0 43 5.0 54 - -
Bicycle Overpass 0.3 3 0.4 4 - -

Striped Bicycle Lanes

Commercial Area 0.9 10 2.0 22 4.0 43
Intermediate Area 0.6 6 1.0 11 2.0 22
Residential Area 0.2 2 0.4 4 0.8 9

(1) Average maintained horizontal illumination


  1. It is recommended that the City of Eugene continue efforts to provide lighting along bicycle paths. An effective lighting program will remove the obstacle of darkness for many riders, and will add to the safety, security, and comfort of bicyclists and pedestrians.
  2. To provide well illuminated surroundings, it is further recommended that the area bordering these bikeways for a width of eight-feet on each side, be lighted to levels of at least one-third of the suggested bikeway standards. This is also applicable to all locations bordering bikeways where personal safety is of utmost concern.
  3. In addition to providing lighting along bike paths, it is recommended that all bike paths be painted with white edge line striping. Citizen requests for the striping were made during the public hearing, and the injury accident reports described an accident in which a bicyclist was injured when he ran off the pavement of a bicycle path in the dark. The white edge striping on the bike paths assists the bicycle rider identify the pavement edge when lighting conditions are poor.

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Last modified March 26, 2003